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Годовой отчет Роснефти 2011: Общая информация

Ключевые события 2011 г.

http://rosneft.ru/attach/0/02/01/rosneft_go_2011_rus_web.pdf

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Usgs assessment: Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Four East Africa Geologic Provinces

Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

Introduction
The main objective of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) World Petroleum Resources Project is to assess the potential for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources of the world, exclusive of the United States. As part of this program, the USGS recently completed an assessment of four geologic provinces: three along the eastern part of the African coast and one more than 900 miles east of the African coast and extending to water depths ranging from 2,000−3,000 meters (m) (fig. 1). From north to south,

the provinces are as follows:
(1) the Tanzania Coastal, containing rift, marginal sag, and passive margin rocks of Middle Jurassic to Holocene age;
(2) Seychelles, characterized by rift, marginal sag, and drift rocks;
(3) the Morondava, containing failed rift, marginal sag, and passive margin rocks; and
(4) the Mozambique Coastal, described by rift, marginal sag, and passive margin rocks.
These assessments were based on data from oil and gas exploration wells and published geologic reports. The four provinces were related to the breakup of Gondwana (fig. 2) in the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Reeves and others, 2002), and developed similarly through two tectonic phases (fig. 3): (1) a syn-rift phase that was started during the Permo–Triassic and continued

into the Jurassic, resulting in the formation of grabens and half-grabens and (2) a drift phase that began in the mid-Jurassic and continued into the Paleogene. A later passive margin phase began in the late Paleogene and continues to the present in the Morondava, Mozambique, and Tanzania Coastal Provinces, whereas in the Seychelles Province the drift phase continues to the present because there is no significant sediment source after the Seychelles-India breakup. The total thickness of the Mesozoic to Cenozoic stratigraphic section is more than 5,000 m on the outer parts of the continental shelf along the east Africa coast in the Morondava and Mozambique Coastal Provinces and more than 4,000 m in the Seychelles Province.

The four provinces and associated assessment units (AU) were assessed for the first time because of increased exploratory activity, recent discoveries, and increased interest in their future potential. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The geologic elements of a TPS include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (quality and distribution), and traps for hydrocarbon accumulation.

Using these geologic criteria, the USGS defined four TPSs and one AU for each TPS (table 1). The TPSs were defined to include Mesozoic to Paleocene source rocks and conventional reservoirs (fig. 3). The Permian to Triassic contains fluvial and lacustrine source rocks, and the Jurassic contains restricted marine Type II kerogen source rocks and marginal marine and deltaic Types II and III kerogen source rocks. Types II and III kerogen source rocks of Cretaceous age have been identified in the Morondava, Mozambique, Seychelles, and Tanzania Provinces, and Types II and III kerogen source rocks of Paleogene age have been identified in Mozambique, Seychelles, and Tanzania Provinces. Permian to Triassic source rocks contain 1.0 to 6.7 weight percent total organic carbon (TOC), with some samples having as much as 17.4 percent. The Early to Middle Jurassic restricted marine Type II source rocks contain as much as 12 weight percent TOC. Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous marine strata include (1) Aptian source containing Type II kerogen, ranging from 2.0 to 4.28 weight percent TOC; and (2) Cenomanian–Turonian source rocks containing Type II kerogen, ranging from 1.0 to 3.0 weight percent TOC. All four AUs contain Mesozoic and Cenozoic clastic reservoirs. Traps are mostly structural within the syn-rift rock units and both structural and stratigraphic in the postrift-rock units. The east African provinces (Mozambique, Morondava, and Tanzania, fig. 1) contain reservoirs that mostly are associated with growth-fault-related structures, rotated fault blocks within the continental shelf, deep water fans, turbidite channels and sandstones, slope truncations along the present-day shelf and paleoshelf edge. Permian to Triassic sandstone and Late Jurassic reefs and platform limestone also are possible reservoirs. The primary seals are Mesozoic and Cenozoic mudstones and shales. The Seychelles Province contains possible reservoirs in Permian to Middle Jurassic rift-related sandstones, Middle Jurassic carbonates, Lower and Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstones, and Tertiary carbonates. The primary seals are intraformational shales.

At the time of the assessment, the four east African provinces contained 1 oil and 11 gas accumulations (HIS Energy, 2009), thus exceeding the minimum size of 5 million barrels of oil equivalent and 30 billion cubic feet of gas; these provinces are considered to be underexplored for their size. The Seychelles Province contained no discoveries and was also underexplored.

Exploration wells and discovered accumulations on the continental shelf and upper slope (IHS Energy, 2009) provide evidence for (1) the existence of an active petroleum system containing Mesozoic source rocks, (2) the migration of the hydrocarbons most likely since the Late Cretaceous, and (3) the migration of the hydrocarbons into Cretaceous and Cenozoic reservoirs.

Resource Summary
The results of the USGS assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and gas resources in the east Africa provinces are listed in table 1.
The mean volumes are estimated at (1) 10,750 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 167,219 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 5,176 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Reservoirs AU in the Morondava Province; (2) 11,682 MMBO, 182,349 BCFG, and 5,645 MMBNGL for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Reservoirs AU in the Mozambique Coastal Province; (3) 2,394 MMBO, 20,376 BCFG, and 739 MMBNGL for the Seychelles Rifts AU in the Seychelles Province; and (4) 2,806 MMBO, 71,107 BCFG, and 2,212 MMBNGL for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Reservoirs AU in the Tanzania Coastal Province.
For this assessment, a minimum undiscovered field size of 5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE) was used. No attempt was made to estimate economically recoverable reserves.

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3039/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3039/contents/FS12-3039.pdf

— — — — — — —
27.6 billion barrels of oil = 3.76 млрд. т. (геол. запасы); *0.3 (КИН) = 1.25 млрд. т. (извлекаемые запасы);
441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas = 12.348 трлн. куб. м. (геол. запасы);

Сланцевая формация Eagle Ford, Техас, США

1. Формация Eagle Ford, общие сведения
Расположение — южный и восточный Техас
Возраст — поздний мел, 88-92 млн. лет
Мощность — 50-350 футов (15-107 м)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_Ford_Formation

Наибольшее число скважин вскрыло Eagle Ford, там где глубина кровли составляет 4000-14000 футов (1200-4300 м), увеличиваясь на юго-восток
http://www.eaglefordshale.com/geology/


http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/eagleford/index.php

2. Формация Eagle Ford, геология

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/geo/pics/tectonic2.jpg

Сланцы Eagle Ford характеризуются наличием кальцита до 70%, высоким содержание кварца, средним содержанием глин 11%. Порода легко растрескивается и не чувствительна к воде, что является весьма благоприятным для выполнения гидроразрыва пласта.
Тем не менее, для формации не присуща природная трещиноватость, характерная для других бассейнов сланцевого газа.

Формирование происходило на глубинах порядка 100 м. В 1920-х гг. начато бурение формации Austin Chalk , залегющей выше. Вероятно, Eagle Ford – нефтематеринские породы, нефть и газ из которых мигрировали в Austin Chalk. Нефтяные компании также бурили через Eagle Ford на протяжении многих лет, ориентируясь на формацию известняка Эдвардс вдоль рифа Эдвардс. Газопроявления были известны ранее, но не имели значения до появление ГРП и горизонтального бурения
http://www.eaglefordshale.com/geology/

3. Формация Eagle Ford, разрезы

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_Ford_Formation


http://geology.com/articles/eagle-ford/

4.
Бурение

http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/eagleford/

Дебиты скважин

http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=3770

Безубыточность по газу для Eagle Ford составляет около 3.88$ за 1000 куб. футов, в отличие от 5.19 $ за 1000 куб. футов для Barnett Shale.  Одной из причин является то, что меньше препятствий для бурения в малонаселенных районах Южного Техаса. Кроме того, Eagle Ford дает гораздо большее количество нефти конденсата, чем сланцы  Barnett, Marcellus или Haynesville. Безубыточность по нефти достигается при цене около $ 50 за баррель, по сравнению с $ 75 для глубоководных скважин Мексиканского залива нефти.

5. Формация Eagle Ford, объемы бурения и добычи


http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/eagleford/index.php

ОАО «Высочайший». Годовой отчет 2010

ОАО Высочайший (GV Gold) — российская горнодобывающая компания. Полное наименование — Открытое акционерное общество «Высочайший». Штаб-квартира — в г.Бодайбо (Иркутская область).
Основана в 1998 году в целях освоения золоторудного месторождения «Голец Высочайший» Бодайбинского района Иркутской области. Учредители АКБ «ЛАНТА-БАНК» (ЗАО) и ОАО «ЛЕНЗОЛОТО»

Деятельность
ОАО «Высочайший» входит в десятку крупнейших золотодобывающих компаний России.
Осуществляет геологоразведочные и добычные работы в 3-х регионах России (Иркутской области, Якутии и Республике Коми).
Портфель проектов ОАО «Высочайший» включает более 10 лицензий суммарной площадью свыше 600 кв.км.

Разведанные запасы Компании составляют 265,5 тонн (8,5 млн.унций) золота, прогнозные ресурсы – 205,2 тонны (6,6 млн.унций) золота.
В 2009 году предприятия ОАО «Высочайший» произвели 3 450 кг золота.
Выручка от реализации золота по МСФО в 2009 году составила 3 350 млн. рублей; чистая прибыль 1 151 млн. рублей.

В планах Компании рост добычи золота к 2016 году до 15 тонн в год.

Собственники и руководство
Основные акционеры — Менеджмент компании (в совокупности 73,3%)
Председатель совета директоров и владелец — Сергей Докучаев — 22,19%
Генеральный директор — Сергей Васильев — 0,96%
Кочетков Владимир Степанович — 5,76% Опалева Наталия Владимировна — 22,19% Тихонов Валериан Анатольевич — 22,19%
Аффилированные лица: Фейвелд Холдингз ЛТД (FAYWELD HOLDINGS LTD)Кипр номинальный держатель 100% ОАО Высочайший

Источник: ru.wikipedia.org

Годовой отчет 2010


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Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Sud Province, North-Central Africa, 2011

The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural
gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using
a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion
cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

Introduction
The main objective of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) World Petroleum Resources Project is to assess the potential for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources of the world, exclusive of the United States. As part of this program, the USGS recently completed an assessment of the Sud Province (fig. 1), an area of approximately 978,800 square

kilometers (km2) that covers parts of the Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Camaroon, and Sudan. This assessment was based on data from oil and gas wells and fields, field production records, and published geologic reports. At the time of the assessment, the province contained 113 oil fields—18 in Chad and 95 in Sudan—and was considered to be underexplored for its size. There was one gas field in the province but several discoveries reported associated gas in oil fields. The producing oil fields and recent petroleum discoveries were limited to the Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins.

The Sud Province was assessed for the first time because of increased exploratory activity and interest in its future potential for
energy resources. The assessment was geology-based and used the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The geologic elements of a TPS include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (quality and distribution), and traps for hydrocarbon accumulation. Using these geologic criteria, the USGS defined the Cretaceous-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) with one assessment unit (AU), the Central African Rifts AU (fig. 1), encompassing about 848,825 km2, that extends beyond the Sud Province boundary. The AU includes parts of the Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, and Tanzania (fig. 1). The TPS was defined to include Cretaceous and Paleogene lacustrine and marine source rocks and the AU contains Cretaceous and Paleogene clastic reservoirs, shale seals, and traps that mostly are associated structurally with extensional and transtensional faulting and minor compressional inversion.

The Central African Rift system was initiated during the Early Cretaceous, during the opening of the south Atlantic and the commencement of regional northwest-southeast extension. The rifting continued into the Neogene and can be divided into two rifting events in the western part and three rifting events in the eastern part. The rift basins of central Africa are linked along the Central African shear zone (CASZ) right-lateral fault system (fig. 1). Several thousand meters of Lower Cretaceous clastic sediments, mostly lacustrine clays, silts, and sands, were deposited during this rifting phase.

The Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins of the western part of the Sud Province (fig. 1) are extensional and transtensional and are filled with Lower Cretaceous to Neogene sedimentary rocks, ranging in thickness from about 3,000 meters (m) to more than 7,500 m (fig. 2) that were deposited in fluvial and lacustrine environments. During the Early Cretaceous, the first rifting phase occurred and fluvial and lacustrine sediments were deposited in the rift basins of southern Chad and the Central African Republic (fig. 2). In the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) there was a regional rifting event that deposited thick continental clastic sediments. During the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene, transtensional faulting and sag events occurred in the western part of the Sud Province and fluvial and lacustrine sediments were deposited.

The rift basins in the eastern part of the province are extensional and transtensional and filled with Lower Cretaceous to Neogene sedimentary rocks, ranging in thickness from 6,000 m to more than 13,000 m that were deposited in fluvial and lacustrine environments. The initial rifting event began in the latest Jurassic and continued through the Early Cretaceous (fig. 3), resulting in the deposition of Lower Cretaceous lacustrine source sediments (figs. 3, 4). The second rifting event began in the Turonian and continued into the Senonian, and the third stage of rifting occurred during the Paleogene, contemporaneous with the commencement of the Red Sea rifting. Each rifting event was followed by a sag event, during which thick continental clastic sediments were deposited (fig. 3).

The central African rift basins are known to contain Cretaceous to Paleogene lacustrine and marine source rocks that have generated hydrocarbons since the Late Cretaceous. The generated hydrocarbons migrated into Cretaceous and Paleogene reservoirs and structural traps.

Resource Summary
Using a geology-based assessment, the USGS estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and gas resources for the Central African Rifts AU in the Sud Province (table 1). The mean volumes are estimated at 7,310 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 13,418 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The estimated mean size of the largest oil field that is expected to be discovered is 1,112 MMBO, and the estimated mean size of the expected largest gas field is 3,677 BCFG. A minimum undiscovered field size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE) was used for this assessment. No attempt was made to estimate economically recoverable reserves.

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3029/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3029/pdf/FS11-3029.pdf

Petroleum Geology and Resources of the Baykit High Province, East Siberia, Russia. 2001

http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2201/F/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2201/F/b2201-f.pdf

Petroleum Geology of the Widyan Basin and Interior Platform of Saudi Arabia and Iraq, 2002


http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2202-e/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2202-e/B2202-E.pdf

Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian–Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria



http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2204/f/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2204/f/pdf/B2204F_508.pdf

Толщина льда в Арктике и Антарктике


http://www.esa.int/esaLP/LPcryosat.html
http://www.esa.int/esaCP/index.html


http://www.esa.int/esaLP/SEMAAW0T1PG_LPcryosat_1.html


http://www.esa.int/esaLP/SEMAAW0T1PG_LPcryosat_0.html
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