Архив меток: Азия Южная

se_boy: ЖЖ о путешествиях на Восток, фото Гималаев и других горных систем

МЕСТОНАХОЖДЕНИЕ: Гималаи, Каракорум, Гиндукуш, Памир, Куньлунь, Тянь-Шань…
http://se-boy.livejournal.com
САЙТ: О путешествиях на Восток… http://navostok.net/

Шринги Химал (Sringi Himal), 7165 метров. Точка съемки с высоты примерно 2000 метров. Район Горкха, зона Гандаки, север Центрального Непала. http://se-boy.livejournal.com/184620.html

— — —
МАОИСТСКИЕ ГРАБЛИ НЕПАЛА. Короли и коммунисты Гималаев http://www.livejournal.com/magazine/1321159.html

Реклама

USAID: стоимость строительства газопроводов к 2007 году


http://www.sari-energy.org/PageFiles/What_We_Do/activities/GEMTP/CEE_NATURAL_GAS_VALUE_CHAIN.pdf

South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy Integration
http://www.sari-energy.org/

iv_g: записи о Индии и Южной Азии [Шри-Ланка, Бангладеш, Пакистан, Непал]

2014
09 Сентябрь 2014 eia.gov: India is increasingly dependent on imported fossil fuels as demand continues to rise http://iv-g.livejournal.com/1087729.html

04 Август 2014 eia.gov: Индия http://iv-g.livejournal.com/1073011.html

2013
11 Сентябрь 2013 Страны 11 бриллиантов — еще один быстро растущий рынок http://iv-g.livejournal.com/937946.html

29 Июль 2013 crudeoilpeak.info: Сrude oil import http://iv-g.livejournal.com/914663.html

27 Май 2013 eia.gov: Рост экономики Индии и ее энергопотребления http://iv-g.livejournal.com/886651.html

19 Март 2013 Цены на природный газ в начале 2013 года и прогнозы цен http://iv-g.livejournal.com/854531.html

12 Февраль 2013 Цены катарского сжиженного газа http://iv-g.livejournal.com/835257.html

07 Февраль 2013 Сингапур намерен войти в Арктический совет в качестве наблюдателя http://iv-g.livejournal.com/831997.html

29 Январь 2013 ОПЕК: World Oil Outlook 2012. Main assumptions http://iv-g.livejournal.com/825797.html

17 Январь 2013 IEA: World Energy Outlook 2012. Presentation to the press http://iv-g.livejournal.com/818512.html

16 Январь 2013 BP Energy Outlook 2030. Общие вопросы http://iv-g.livejournal.com/818067.html

15 Январь 2013 BP Energy Outlook 2030. Транспорт http://iv-g.livejournal.com/817331.html

13 Январь 2013 BP Energy Outlook 2030. Китай и Индия http://iv-g.livejournal.com/816247.html

12 Январь 2013 BP Energy Outlook 2030. Нефть, газ, конденсат http://iv-g.livejournal.com/815550.html

11 Январь 2013 BP Energy Outlook 2030. Global energy trends http://iv-g.livejournal.com/814719.html

10 Январь 2013 ExxonMobil’s Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. Supply, Global trade, Energy evolution, Data http://iv-g.livejournal.com/814278.html

09 Январь 2013 ExxonMobil’s Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. Industrial, Electricity generation http://iv-g.livejournal.com/813615.html

08 Январь 2013 ExxonMobil’s Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. Residential/commercial, Transportation http://iv-g.livejournal.com/813311.html

07 Январь 2013 ExxonMobil’s Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. Global fundamentals http://iv-g.livejournal.com/812643.html

01 Январь 2013 Доклад «Мировые тренды 2030: альтернативные миры» http://iv-g.livejournal.com/810176.html

2012
29 Октябрь 2012 India Diwali Satellite Image Real or Fake http://iv-g.livejournal.com/771587.html

24 Октябрь 2012 BP Statistical Review of World Energy:Inter-area movements 2011, нефть http://iv-g.livejournal.com/767765.html

14 Сентябрь 2012 Годовой отчет ОАО Зарубежнефть 2011: Нефтесервис http://iv-g.livejournal.com/744824.html

02 Август 2012 Карты Cauvery-Basin, Индия http://iv-g.livejournal.com/720227.html

28 Июнь 2012 Мировая добыча урана в 2011 году — данные WNA http://iv-g.livejournal.com/700902.html
— 13 место, Индия — 400 тонн

18 Июнь 2012 Презентация: Энергетика Индии, 2007 http://iv-g.livejournal.com/692872.html

18 Июнь 2012 Презентация: Indian Oil and Gas Industry, October 2006 http://iv-g.livejournal.com/692573.html

11 Май 2012 Энергетика Японии http://iv-g.livejournal.com/668597.html

11 Март 2012 Крупнейшие экономики мира

ВНД на душу населения в долларах по ППС. Валовой национальный доход на душу населения в долларах по ППС (для учета соотношения цен в разных странах). Без поправки на инфляцию.

28 Февраль 2012 Индийско-пакистанская граница, фото http://iv-g.livejournal.com/612323.html

09 Февраль 2012 gapminder.org: Потребление энергии и душевой ВВП. Бразилия, Индия, Китай, Франция, ЮАР http://iv-g.livejournal.com/598428.html

23 Январь 2012 Usgs assessment: Potential Shale Gas Resources of the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna–Godavari Province http://iv-g.livejournal.com/587934.html

2011
01 Сентябрь 2011 earlywarn.blogspot.com: потребление нефти в мире по данным BP http://iv-g.livejournal.com/537042.html

16 Август 2011 minerals.usgs.gov: Бокситы Production by Country (Metric tons, cobalt content) http://iv-g.livejournal.com/528743.html

27 Июль 2011 minerals.usgs.gov: Iron Ore Production by Country (Thousand metric tons) http://iv-g.livejournal.com/523277.html

26 Июль 2011 ОЭСР: добыча нефти http://iv-g.livejournal.com/522037.html
04 Июль 2011 Детский труд на угольных шахтах Индии http://iv-g.livejournal.com/514429.html
15 Июнь 2011 США: энергетика и политика в Евразии http://iv-g.livejournal.com/509589.html

02 Июнь 2011 MEA-1999: Южная Азия http://iv-g.livejournal.com/504169.html

22 Февраль 2011 BP скупает Бенгальский залив http://iv-g.livejournal.com/466559.html

2010
23 Сентябрь 2010 alexandrov_g: http://www.worldmapper.org, карты заселенности стран http://iv-g.livejournal.com/307460.html

21 Сентябрь 2010 В Ашхабаде подписано соглашение о строительстве Трансафганского газопровода http://iv-g.livejournal.com/305467.html

30 Август 2010 Россия: недовольство индийским законопроектом об ограничении ответственности за ядерный ущерб http://iv-g.livejournal.com/263362.html

24 Август 2010 Индия: энергетика, углеводороды

24 Август 2010 Индия. Горная энциклопедия http://iv-g.livejournal.com/252230.html

24 Август 2010 Индия: геология, нефтегазоность, горнодобывающая промышленность http://iv-g.livejournal.com/252002.html

24 Август 2010 Индия: общие сведения http://iv-g.livejournal.com/249522.html

12 Июль 2010 Газпром http://iv-g.livejournal.com/197303.html
24 Июнь 2010 Индия: академия наук, сайт http://iv-g.livejournal.com/252785.html
01 Апрель 2010 Блоги о геологии Индонезии http://iv-g.livejournal.com/249979.html
14 Февраль 2010 unokai: Диаграммы задолженности: Испания, Россия, Европа, США, БРИК http://iv-g.livejournal.com/81885.html
22 Январь 2010 ООН признает ошибку в климатическом прогнозе http://iv-g.livejournal.com/57259.html
17 Ноябрь 2008 ONGC Videsh Ltd: покупка Imperial Energy http://iv-g.livejournal.com/25184.html

01 Март 2008 Geological Survey of India http://iv-g.livejournal.com/250161.html

— — — —
28 Апрель 2012 Usgs assessment: An Estimate of Undiscovered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources of the World, 2012 http://iv-g.livejournal.com/659624.html

11 Октябрь 2011 Нефтяная геология Шри-Ланки http://iv-g.livejournal.com/556923.html

11 Октябрь 2011 На Шри-Ланке обнаружено первое месторождение природного газа http://iv-g.livejournal.com/556620.html

09 Февраль 2011 zyalt: Добыча драгоценных камней, Шри-Ланка. Фото http://iv-g.livejournal.com/460213.html

20 Август 2014 bigpicture.ru: Кладбище кораблей в Читтагонге 20 Август 2014 @ 09:15
bigpicture.ru: Кладбище кораблей в Читтагонге

10 Декабрь 2012 wikipedia: Petrobangla http://iv-g.livejournal.com/797460.html

01 Январь 2011 Читтагонг: жизнь на свалке ржавых кораблей http://iv-g.livejournal.com/417762.html

23 Май 2013 Пакистанским госслужащим запретили летом работать в носках http://iv-g.livejournal.com/884705.html

24 Август 2010 Geology of Nepal http://iv-g.livejournal.com/251291.html

wikipedia: Petrobangla

Petrobangla (Bangladesh Oil, Gas & Mineral Corporation) is a government-owned national oil company of Bangladesh. It explores, produces, transports and sells oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. It also concludes production sharing agreements with international oil companies for exploration and development of oil and gas resources in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Mineral Oil & Gas Corporation (BMOGC) was created through the Presidential order #27 on March 26, 1972. The minerals operation of the corporation was segregated and vested with a new organization, Bangladesh Mineral Development Corporation (BMEDC), on 27 September 1972, through the PO # 120. The reconstituted Bangladesh Oil & Gas Corporation (BOGC) was short named Petrobangla through the ordinance # 15 of 22 August, 1974. On 13 November 1976, through the ordinance #88, the importation, refining and marketing of crude and petroleum products and vested with newly formed Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC).

BOGC and BMEDC were merged into a single entity, Bangladesh Oil, Gas & Minerals Corporation (BOGMC), by the Ordinance # 21 of 11 April 1985. In a partial modification of the Ordinance by the Law 11 of February 1989, the corporation was short named Petrobangla and given the authority to hold the shares of the companies dealing in oil, gas & minerals exploration and development.

Initial scattered exploration effort for oil and gas was undertaken by private ventures. The search of oil and gas in the area constituting Bangladesh began in the later part of the 19th century through some isolated geological mapping. The first serious attempt to find oil and gas was undertaken in Sitakund in 1908 by the Indian Petroleum Prospecting Company, 18 years after the first oil discovery in Digboi, Assam. During 1923-31 Burmah Oil Company (BOC) drilled two shallow wells in Patharia. The wells were abandoned though there was a reported occurrence of oil. A total of 6 exploratory wells were drilled, there was however no discovery and the Second World War disrupted further activity.

The promulgation of Pakistan Petroleum Act in 1948 introduced formal activity and infused interest of international oil companies in oil and gas exploration. The Standard Vacuum Oil Company (STANVAC) of USA, Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. (PPL) — a Burmah Oil Company affiliate and Pakistan Shell Oil Company (PSOC) took up concessions during early fifties and carried out exploration till the end of sixties. These operations saw the drilling of 16 exploration wells including the first offshore well and resulted in the discovery of 7 gas fields.
During this time Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC) was established as the first public sector national organization in 1961 and the root of exploration for oil and gas were firmly set in the country. OGDC started to carriy out geological and geophysical survey including gravity, magnetic and seismic, and drilled wells which soon saw success.

After the liberation of Bangladesh, exploration activities gathered pace both by the national and international companies. The part of OGDC that was in operation in Bangladesh was reorganized as Bangladesh Mineral Oil and Gas Corporation (Petrobangla) continued its exploration efforts while the Bangladesh Petroleum Act was enacted in 1974 to facilitate international participation under PSC. The offshore area of Bangladesh was divided in to 6 blocks, which were taken up by Ashland, ARCO, BODC (Japex), Union Oil, Canadian Superior Oil and Ina Naftaplin under production sharing contract. This phase of PSC ended with relinquishments by 1978. Since 1972 the operational mandate of Petrobangla have undergone modification several times. In 1974 oil import, refining and marketing was segregated under Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation, while the mineral operation, which was separate since 1972, was merged with oil and gas operation in 1985. Presently Bangladesh Oil Gas and Minerals Corporation short named Petrobangla operates oil and gas exploration, development, transmission, distribution and conversion together with development and marketing of minerals.

The logo of Petrobangla signifies its primary business of oil and gas related operations. The blue and the red segments signifies the energy emanation from gas and oil, while the overall circle signifies the integration of the whole business. The stylized letters P and B signifies Petrobangla.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrobangla

History of Petrobangla
http://www.petrobangla.org.bd/corp_history.php

Website
petrobangla.org.bd

Презентация: Энергетика Индии, 2007

http://www.slideshare.net/shivrajsinghnegi/indian-energy-sector-overview

Презентация: Indian Oil and Gas Industry, October 2006


http://www.slideshare.net/unstopableamit4u/oilandgas2006

Usgs assessment: An Estimate of Undiscovered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources of the World, 2012

Introduction
The authors of this report summarize a geology-based assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of priority geologic provinces of the world, completed between 2009 and 2011 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Petroleum Resources Project (fig. 1). One hundred seventy-one geologic provinces were assessed in this study (exclusive of provinces of the United States), which represent a complete reassessment of the world since the last report was published in 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). The present report includes the recent oil and gas assessment of geologic provinces north of
the Arctic Circle (U.S. Geological Survey Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal Assessment Team, 2008). However, not all potential oil- and gas-bearing provinces of the world were assessed in the present study.

The methodology for the assessment included a complete geologic framework description for each province based mainly on published literature, and the definition of petroleum systems and assessment units (AU) within these systems. In this study, 313 AUs were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. Exploration and discovery history was a critical part of the methodology to determine sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. In those AUs with few or no discoveries, geologic and production analogs were used as a partial guide to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations, using a database developed by the USGS following the 2000 assessment (Charpentier and others, 2008). Each AU was assessed for undiscovered oil and nonassociated gas accumulations, and co-product ratios were used to calculate the volumes of associated gas (gas in oil fields) and volumes of natural gas liquids. This assessment is for conventional oil and gas resources only; unconventional resource assessments (heavy oil, tar sands, shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, coalbed gas) for priority areas of the world are being completed in an ongoing but separate USGS study.

Resource Summary
The USGS assessed undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in 313 AUs within 171 geologic provinces. In this report the results are presented by geographic region, which correspond to the eight regions used by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) (table 1). For undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, the mean totals for the world are as follows:
(1) 565,298 million barrels of oil (MMBO);
(2) 5,605,626 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG);
and (3) 166,668 million barrels (MMBNGL) of natural gas liquids.

The ranges of resource estimates (between the 95 and 5 fractiles) reflect the geologic uncertainty in the assessment process (table 1). The assessment results indicate that about 75 percent of the undiscovered conventional oil of the world is in four regions:
(1) South America and Caribbean,
(2) sub-Saharan Africa,
(3) Middle East and North Africa, and
(4) the Arctic provinces portion of North America.

Significant undiscovered conventional gas resources remain in all of the world’s regions (table 1).

Regions 0 and 1 (29 assessed provinces) encompass geologic provinces within countries of the former Soviet Union and include many provinces of the Arctic (fig. 1). Of the mean undiscovered estimate of 66 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in this region, about 43 percent
is estimated to be in Arctic provinces. This region also contains significant gas resources [mean of 1,623 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG)], about 58 percent of which is estimated to be in three Arctic AUs: South Kara Sea AU (622 TCFG); South Barents Basin AU (187 TCFG), and North Barents Basin AU (127 TCFG).

Region 2 (26 assessed provinces), the Middle East and North Africa, includes the Zagros Fold Belt of Iran, Arabian Peninsula, southern Turkey, and geologic provinces of North Africa from Egypt to Morocco. This region is estimated to contain a mean of 111 BBO, about 60 percent (65 BBO) of which is estimated to be in the Zagros and Mesopotamian provinces. This region is estimated to contain a conventional gas resource mean of 941 TCFG, about 60 percent (566 TCFG)
of which is estimated to be in the Zagros Fold Belt and the offshore areas of the Red Sea Basin, Levantine Basin, and Nile Delta provinces.

Region 3 (39 assessed provinces), Asia and Pacific, includes geologic provinces of China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor, Australia, and New Zealand. Of the total mean undiscovered oil resources of 48 BBO, about 33 percent is estimated to be in China provinces (15.7 BBO), and 10 percent is in Australian provinces (5 BBO). Other significant oil resources are in offshore Brunei (3.6 BBO), Kutei Basin (3 BBO), and South China Sea (2.5 BBO) provinces. Of the undiscovered mean total of 738 TCFG, about 45 percent (335 TCFG) is in provinces of Australia (227 TCFG) and China (108 TCFG). The rest of the gas resource is distributed across the other provinces of Southeast Asia.

Region 4 (6 assessed provinces) includes Europe and several Arctic provinces. Of the mean of 9.9 BBO of undiscovered oil, about 50 percent (5 BBO) is estimated to be in the North Sea province. Of the undiscovered gas resource of 149 TCFG, the Arctic provinces are estimated to contain about 40 percent (58 TCFG). Significant undiscovered gas resources are estimated to be in the Norwegian continental margin, Provencal Basin, and Po Basin provinces.

Region 5 (21 assessed provinces), North America exclusive of the United States, includes Mexico, Canada, and several Arctic provinces. Of the mean oil resource of 83 BBO, about 75 percent (61 BBO) is estimated to be in Arctic provinces, and 23 percent (19 BBO) is estimated to be in Mexican Gulf provinces. In this region about 83 percent (459 TCFG) of the undiscovered conventional gas is in the Arctic provinces.

Region 6 (31 assessed provinces) includes South America and the Caribbean area. Of the mean estimate of 126 BBO in this region, about 44 percent (55.6 BBO) is estimated to be in offshore subsalt reservoirs in the Santos, Campos, and Espirito Santo basin provinces. Other significant mean oil resources are estimated to be in the Guyana−Suriname Basin (12 BBO), Santos Basin (11 BBO), Falklands (5.3 BBO), and Campos Basin (3.7 BBO) provinces. Undiscovered gas resources are less concentrated and are distributed among many provinces.

Region 7 (13 assessed provinces), sub-Saharan Africa, is estimated to contain a mean 115 BBO, of which about 75 percent is estimated to be in coastal provinces related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, such as Senegal, Gulf of Guinea, West African Coastal, and West-Central Coastal provinces. Of the undiscovered gas resource mean of 744 TCFG, more than half is estimated to be in provinces of offshore east Africa, including those offshore Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, and Seychelles.

Region 8 (6 assessed provinces), South Asia, includes India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Burma. Of the mean of 5.9 BBO, about 1.8 BBO is estimated to be in the Central Burma Basin province and 1.4 BBO is in the Bombay province. Of the undiscovered gas resource of 159 TCFG, about 39 percent (62 TCFG) of the undiscovered gas resource is in the three provinces of offshore eastern India. Although unconventional oil and gas resources, such as heavy oil, tar sands, shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, and coalbed gas, are not included in this study, unconventional resource volumes can be truly significant. For example, the mean estimate for recoverable heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt in Venezuela alone is 513 BBO (U.S. Geological Survey Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Team, 2009), compared to mean conventional resources of 565 BBO for 171 provinces reported in this study.

http://energy.usgs.gov/Miscellaneous/Articles/tabid/98/ID/160/An-Estimate-of-Undiscovered-Conventional-Oil-and-Gas-Resources-of-the-World-2012.aspx
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3042/
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3042/fs2012-3042.pdf

USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000

Индийско-пакистанская граница, фото

Фотография индийско-пакистанской границы, сделанная экспедицией 28 экипажа МКС. Забор между двумя странами тщательно освещен для упрощения наблюдения за границей. Фото: Reuters/NASA

http://slon.ru/photo_daily/673286/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_border

Нефтяная геология Шри-Ланки

Petroleum Systems of the Deepwater Mannar Basin, Offshore Sri Lanka
Peter Baillie, P. M. Barber, Ian Deighton, Paul A. Gilleran, W. A. Jinadasa, R. D. Shaw
Indonesian Petroleum Association
Volume , Pages 533 — 545 (2004)

Petroleum Resources Development Secretariat (PRDS) — Sri Lanka

Карты НГБ

http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/ofr-97-470/OF97-470C/index.html
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/ofr-97-470/OF97-470C/region8.pdf

Sri Lanka Will Seek Bids for Oil Exploration Licenses, April 5, 2007
Cauvery Basin


http://www.sangam.org/2007/03/Oil_Exploration.php?uid=2320

http://printfu.org/mannar+basin?page=1
Potential Shale Gas Basins of India Possibilities & Evaluations

Potential Shale Gas Basins: Cambay, Assam-Arakan, Gondwana, Vindhyan, Rajasthan, Bengal, Krishna-Godavari, Cauvery

Cauvery Basin

Prospectivity of Cauvery Basin in Deep Syn-rift Sequences, SE India

— — — — — — — — — — —

27 May 2011
Cairn India to drill first offshore well in the Mannar Basin in August
http://www.energy-pedia.com/article.aspx?articleid=145604

27 March 2011
Drilling for oil in Mannar Basin begins in July

http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2011/03/27/new21.asp

18 Feb 2011
Sri Lanka ready to nominate OVL for oil and gas blocks — update
http://www.energy-pedia.com/article.aspx?articleid=144204

24 January 2011
Sri Lanka Oil Exploration in Mannar Basin on Schedule. Tenders for more Blocks by End January

http://investsrilanka.blogspot.com/2011/01/sri-lanka-oil-exploration-in-mannar.html

— — — — — — — — — — —
http://www.prds-srilanka.com

Exploration History
Petroleum exploration in Sri Lanka began approximately 40 years ago in late 1960s. In 1967-68 Compaigne General de Geophysicque collected approximately 420 km of onshore and 75 km of offshore seismic data on behalf of the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation (CPC or Ceypetco). The Soviets, with their increased interest in South Asia in the 1970s, recorded 4837 km of marine seismic data in 1972 to 1975 along with some onshore data to evaluate the Palk Bay area in the Cauvery Basin under an agreement with the Sri Lankan government. In 1974 Soviets spudded Pesalai 1 on the Mannar Island and drilled to a TD of 2594 m to pre-Cambrian gneiss basement. The well encountered a water-bearing basal Lower Cretaceous sandstone with a small amount of dissolved gas with heavy ends to pentane. Encouraged by the gas show in Pesalai 1, Soviets drilled two more wells nearby, Pesalai 2 and Pesalai 3, but both failed to encounter significant reservoir rocks or a trap. This led to withdrawal of the Soviets from the area.

In 1975 CPC engaged Pexamin Pacific as a consultant to promote exploration in the Sri Lankan portion of the Cauvery Basin. In 1976 Western Geophysical recorded 1947 km of 2D seismic data around the island. Western Geophysical also collected 2829 km of seismic data in Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar in 1976. Subsequently, Pexamin Pacific signed a contract with CPC for an offshore exploration block.

Marathon Petroleum farmed into Pexamin’s interest in 1976 and drilled two exploratory wells, Palk Bay-1 and Delft-1 in the Cauvery Basin, both targeting horst block plays. Both failed to encounter any hydrocarbons and in 1977, the Marathon -Pexamin group relinquished its interests.

In 1981, Cities Services acquired interests in the Cauvery and the Mannar basins and collected a total of 1556 km of seismic, 1289 km in the Gulf of Mannar and 267 km in Palk Bay. The same year Cities Services drilled Pearl-1, located on the northeast shelf of the Gulf of Mannar. This well was drilled to total depth of 3050 m with no oil and gas shows. The well bottomed in a volcanic sill and is the only well on the Sri Lankan portion of the Mannar Basin to date. On the positive side, the well penetrated an 850 m thick Late Cretaceous basal sandstone unit thereby establishing the presence of significant reservoir rocks in the Mannar Basin.

About the same time ONGC made the PH-9 discovery approximately 30 km north of the India-Sri Lanka maritime boundary in the Cauvery Basin. Encouraged by this discovery Cities Services drilled Pedro 1, the most northerly exploration well in the Sri Lankan waters. The well was drilled to a total depth of 1437 m and failed to encounter any hydrocarbons.

In 1984 under a tripartite agreement between Phoenix Canada Oil Company, Petro-Canada and CPC, Petro-Canada acquired 980 km of 2D seismic data in the Mannar Basin. This is the first comprehensive seismic program in the Mannar Basin. However, no further work was done and by 1984 petroleum exploration work offshore Sri Lanka came to a halt and remained dormant till 2001.


In 2001 under a contract from the Asian Development Bank to evaluate the petroleum potential of Sri Lanka as well as its petroleum administrative and fiscal regime of the University of New South Wales (Newsouth Global Pty Ltd) provided an interpretation report and draft petroleum legislation and a Petroleum Resources Agreement. The latter was coined after the Indian Production sharing Contract (PSC) at that time. Encouraged by the report of the Newsouth Global, TGS NOPEC, a Norwegian seismic contractor with a regional office in Perth, Australia, approached CPC to undertake a speculative seismic program in the Mannar Basin. In 2001 CPC and TGS NOPEC signed an agreement to collect 1100 km of 2D seismic data in the Mannar Basin. The data was acquired in June-July 2001 and a detailed interpretation report was produced by Newsouth Global in 2002 (Newsouth Global 2002) under contract to TGS NOPEC. The report highlighted the petroleum potential of the Mannar Basin and encouraged TGS NOPEC to collected additional 4600 km of seismic in the basin 2005. These two TGS NOPEC data acquisitions provide a modern, high quality 2D seismic data set in the Mannar Basin for exploration companies interested in the area.

From 2002 to 2006 the Government of Sri Lanka and TGS NOPEC made attempts to attract exploration companies to Sri Lankan through road shows at various venues. These efforts were unsuccessful. In 2007 under a Cabinet Decision the government of Sri Lanka bought the Mannar Basin 2D data from TGS NOPEC thereby canceling the exclusive rights that TGS NOPEC had to collect seismic data in the territorial waters of Sri Lanka. Based on this data the Mannar Basin was divided into eight exploration blocks ranging from 3340 to 6640 sq. km. The Government of Sri Lanka offered the very northern block to the Government of India and the very southern block to the Government of China under previous pledges made by governments. Out of the six remaining blocks the Cabinet of Ministers decided to offer three for petroleum exploration under an international licensing round.

In 2007 September the Petroleum Resources Development Secretariat under the Ministry of Petroleum and Petroleum Resources Development launched the Mannar Basin Licensing Round for three exploration blocks in the Mannar Basin. An extensive marketing campaign was carried out globally with road shows and data rooms in London, Houston and Kuala Lumpur. These efforts were successful in the sense that bids were received for all three blocks with three bids for Block SL2007-01-001, two bids for Block SL2007-01-002 and one bid for Block SL2007-01-003). The Cabinet of Ministers decided that the number of bids received for blocks 002 and 003 are not enough and thus directed the Ministry to evaluate only the bids received for block 001.

The bidders for Block 001 in the Mannar Basin licensing Round consisted of Cairn India Limited, Niko Resources (Cyprus) Limited and Oil and Natural Gas Company of India (ONGC). The bids were evaluated by a technical evaluation committee (TEC) and a Cabinet appointed negotiation committee (CANC) who selected Cairn India Limited as the winning bidder on the basis of the work commitments and fiscal provisions in the bids. On July 07, 2008 the Government of Sri Lanka, through the Minister of Petroleum and Petroleum Resources Development signed a Petroleum Resources Agreement with Cairn Lanka (Private) Limited marking the beginning of petroleum exploration of Sri Lanka after a hiatus of 25 years.

Petroleum Potential Offshore Sri Lanka
Even though no oil and gas accumulations have been discovered in the Mannar Basin or in the part of the Cauvery Basin that lies within the jurisdiction of Sri Lanka, discoveries on the Indian side of the Cauvery Basin give clues to the potential for viable petroleum systems offshore Sri Lanka. Exploration efforts in the Cauvery Basin within Indian jurisdiction have resulted in twenty six small and medium sized oil and gas fields with a total resource of approximately 700 million barrels of oil equivalent (Babu and Lakshmi 2004). The closest discovery to Sri Lanka is the PH-9-1 well some 80 km to the north of the island. The well has flowed 1488 barrels per day of 56 API oil from a Cretaceous sandstone on drill stem testing.

The most recent discovery was when in July 2007 Reliance Industries Limited announced the first deep water discovery in the region from an exploration block on the Indian side of the Cauvery Basin, ‘Dhirubhai — 35’. The well was drilled in a water depth of 1,185 meters and encountered a clastic reservoir with a gross hydrocarbon column of around 150 m of Cretaceous section. The presence of oil and gas with condensate was confirmed by several tests. During drill stem tests (DST) the well has produced 31 million standard cubic feet of gas with 1,200 barrels of condensate per day from the main zone. Another zone tested below the main zone produced around 550 barrels of oil and 1 million standard cubic feet of gas per day. The well showed that not only the shallow water area but also the deep water area off south India and Sri Lanka could have viable petroleum systems.

Magoon and Dow (1994) defined a petroleum system as the essential elements and processes as well as all genetically related hydrocarbons that occur in petroleum shows, seeps, and accumulations whose provenance is a single pod of active source rock. United States Geological Survey in their 2000 assessment of the world resources introduced the term Total Petroleum System (TPS). The TPS consists of the essential elements (source rock, reservoir rock, seal rock, and overburden rock) and processes (generation-migration-accumulation and trap formation) as well as all genetically related petroleum that occurs in seeps, shows, and accumulations, both discovered and undiscovered, whose provenance is a pod or closely related pods of active source rock (USGS 2000). The TPS is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon-fluid system that can be mapped, and includes the essential elements and processes needed for oil and gas accumulations and presumes the existence of migration pathways, either now or in the past, connecting source rocks with reservoirs and traps

In assessing the total petroleum system in the Cauvery Basin and the Manner Basin one has to determine the possibility of source rocks, reservoir rocks, traps and generation and migration pathways for hydrocarbons to move from source to traps. Source rocks are rocks that contain organic carbon (kerogen) capable of producing hydrocarbons upon undergoing burial in a sedimentary basin. Kerogen is made up from altered remains of marine and lacustrine microorganisms, plants and animals. Upon burial, source rocks get heated up under the geothermal gradient in the region and produces hydrocarbons. The oil and gas production begins at 50° and ends at 150° C with peak oil production around 90° C. Reservoir rocks are rocks with gaps between different grains that make up the rock. These rocks have porosity and permeability so that oil and gas can pass through them or reside in them. When a reservoir rock containing petroleum meets an impermeable rock the oil and gas cannot move any further and get trapped. This way oil and gas can get accumulated in underground pockets where rocks have been faulted or folded creating traps where the reservoir rocks are capped by or juxtaposed against impermeable seal rocks.

Many source rock analyses have been conducted on cuttings from wells drilled in the region which suggest that good quality source rocks occur in the Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks in the Cauvery and the Mannar basins. Especially the Lower Cretaceous rocks in the Pesalai wells seem to have high organic carbon values averaging 3.5 weight percent. However, the samples analyzed are mostly immature as the previous wells have been drilled on structural highs. This may be the reason that the previous wells in the area were dry. Modeling studies (Newsouth Global 2002) have indicated that the source rocks would be in the oil generating window in the deeper parts of the Cauvery and the Mannar basins.

Results from previous drilling indicate potential for good reservoir development in the area. The Pearl-1 well encountered an 850 m thick, good quality Late Cretaceous sandstone reservoir. Seismic data indicate possible development of both shallow marine and deep water submarine channel and submarine fan reservoirs in the area. Late Cretaceous and Tertiary limestone and shale intervals are present to provide adequate seal rocks.

Seismic data reveal a number of large anticlinal closures (traps) that can be interpreted as flower structures associated with northeast trending transfer faults. These faults can be traced to transform faults related to the mid ocean ridge in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar. Minor faulting and fracturing associated with these large transfer faults would have provided ample pathways for oil and gas produced from the source rocks in the oil window to move into shallower reservoirs and traps. Large oil fields with billions of barrels of oil reserves have been found under similar structural setting offshore Brazil associated with transfer faults

As indicated above the essential elements of a petroleum system include source rock, reservoir rock, seal rock and processes such as hydrocarbon generation, migration-and accumulation and trap formation. Available data and discoveries in the region indicate that the Mannar Basin and the Cauvery Basin offshore Sri Lanka could have viable petroleum systems. This needs to be proved by drilling and until then we only know that there is only potential for oil and gas accumulations in the area. In quantifying this potential, the chance of an adequate source of oil and gas (mature good quality source rocks and migration pathways) could be estimated at 75%, the presence of adequate reservoir rocks in the basin could be estimated at 80% and the possibility of traps could be 100%. Therefore the chance of finding hydrocarbon accumulations may be estimated at (0.75 x O.8 x 1) 60%.

ГРР

Скважины

Legal & Land — MAPS & CHARTS

PRDS — PUBLICATIONS — The current status of oil exploration in Sri Lanka and future opportunities. CCI Bulletin, July 2008, P. 11.

На Шри-Ланке обнаружено первое месторождение природного газа

В воскресенье, 2 октября, информационные агентства сообщили, что на северо-западе Шри-Ланки обнаружено первое месторождение природного газа.

Как сообщает Ассошиэйтед Пресс, о том, что месторождение углеводородов находится у северо-западного побережья страны на уровне 4300 метров ниже уровня моря сообщил в воскресенье президент Шри-Ланки Махинда Раджапакс. Он отметил, что в случае, если новое месторождение будет пригодно для разработки, власти страны надеются, что это спровоцирует интерес у зарубежных государств-инвесторов.

На сегодняшний час компания Cairn Lanka производит бурение в бассейне Маннар, где было найдено месторождение, чтобы определить имеет ли оно коммерческий потенциал.

Стоит отметить, что в том же бассейне находится семь нефтегазовых блоков, на разработку которых в ближайшее время будет объявлен тендер.

Шри-Ланка целиком зависит от импортных энергоресурсов — в 2009 году страна потратила на их закупку 3 миллиарда долларов.
http://www.km.ru/v-mire/2011/10/02/ekonomika-i-finansy/na-shri-lanke-obnaruzheno-pervoe-mestorozhdenie-prirodnogo-gaz

Cairn has said earlier If Sri Lanka’s drilling program is successful then commercial oil production can be expected by 2014 with a billion barrels.

The Block SL 2007-01-001 was awarded to Cairn in the 2008 Sri Lanka bid round. Cairn Lanka (Private) Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cairn India and holds a 100% participating interest in the Mannar block.

Mannar basin has eight oil and gas exploration blocks and two of them have been granted to China and India. Officials of Russia’s largest oil company, Gazprom recently visited Sri Lanka to hold discussions on oil exploration in the Mannar Basin.
………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Extract From Reuters

Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa on Sunday said natural gas has been found off the Indian Ocean island nation in the Mannar Basin, in a well Cairn India Ltd. said required more exploration to see if it is commercially viable.

Cairn, a subsidiary of London-listed Cairn Energy Plc , said the find was Sri Lanka’s first confirmed hydrocarbon discovery.

«Explorers have informed me that they have found a gas deposit in the seabed,» presidential spokesman Wijayananda Herath quoted Rajapaksa as saying to an audience in the hill city of Kandy.

Cairn Lanka, a subsidiary of Cairn India, has one of eight blocks in the Mannar Basin and began drilling in August.

It struck a 25-metre hydrocarbon column showing primarily gas with «other liquid hydrocarbon potential» in the CLPL-Dorado-91H/1z wildcat well, drilled at a water depth of 1,354 metres (4,442 feet).

«Further drilling will be required to establish the commerciality of the discovery,» Cairn said in a statement.

In 2007, the government gave one Mannar block each to India and China, but neither has drilled. The remaining five blocks are to be awarded by tender.

«We are optimistic that this will be commercially successful,» Petroleum Industries Minister Susil Premajayantha told Reuters. «Now with this discovery, we can get good competition and offers for the remaining five blocks when we go for tendering.»

Interest in the blocks has grown, but most operators have been happy to let Cairn try its luck before making any commitments while the government smooths an erratic oil and gas regulatory regime, diplomats following the exploration in Sri Lanka have told Reuters.

It is unclear whether the find will affect terms of a deal by London-listed miner Vedanta Resources to take a majority stake in Cairn India.

Sri Lanka’s government has said seismic data shows the potential for more than 1 billion barrels of oil under the sea in a 30,000 sq km area of the Mannar Basin, off the island’s north western coast.

Sri Lanka produces no oil and is dependent on imports, which cost it $3 billion in 2009. Since the end of a 25-year war with Tamil separatists two years ago, the government has tried to reinvigorate oil and gas exploration.

American and Russian companies from the mid-1960s to 1984 explored the Cauvery Basin off the northern shore, but only traces were found and no commercial oil was produced.

Violence onshore from Sri Lanka’s civil war with the Tamil Tigers ended offshore exploration there.

There are nearly 30 operating wells on the Indian side of the Cauvery Basin, and Calgary-based Bengal Energy Ltd. has exploration rights for 1,362 sq km there. Sri Lanka is hopeful that success will be reflected on its side of the field.

There is also speculation that Sri Lanka’s eastern coastal shelf has major oil and gas potential, but there is no seismic data yet to back it up.


http://www.nowpublic.com/world/first-natural-gas-deposit-found-sri-lanka

07 August 2011
Cairn Lanka, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cairn India commenced drilling for oil in the Mannar basin off Sri Lanka’s northwestern coast
Источник

27 April 2010
Sri Lanka Offers More Blocks for Offshore Oil Exploration in North and South
http://investsrilanka.blogspot.com/2010/04/sri-lanka-offers-more-blocks-for.html

16 Jan 2009
Sri Lanka invites ONGC to bid for oil blocks

http://www.energy-pedia.com/article.aspx?articleid=133476

Feb 01, 2008

The southernmost block of the three offered by Sri Lanka in the Mannar Basin, stretching from the coast to the maritime boundary with India, had only attracted one bid when bids closed Thursday.

Block 001 which is 3,338.10 square kilometers in size had attracted bids from all three bidders: ONGC Videsh, Cairn India, and Niko Resources of Cyprus.

ONGC Videsh is a subsidiary of state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, India’s largest oil and gas company.

Cairn India, is 69 per cent owned by London-listed Cairn Energy, a small oil firm compared with the global majors, but the biggest foreign petroleum operator in India, both onshore and offshore. It is concentrating on south Asia and is also doing exploration or drilling oil in Bangladesh and Nepal.

Canada-based Niko Resources is exploring for and producing petroleum and natural gas in Canada, India and Bangladesh.

Block 002 is of 3,572.08 square kilometers and attracted bids from both Cairn India and Niko Resources while Block 003, the largest being 4,126.51 sq. km in size, had only Niko’s sole bid.

Officials said oil firms were more interested in exploring in the areas closer to the Cauvery basin where India has already discovered oil and gas, hence the attraction of Block 001.

Chances of striking oil are higher because the geological features of the blocks are similar.

Petroleum minister A H M Fowzie said the government will take about three or four months to evaluate the bids.

The government has also said it wants to invite oil firms to explore in other areas towards the north of the island, in addition to the blocks already on offer.
http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=465485&page=4

— — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Политика
29-Apr-2010
Indo Sri Lanka Maritime Issues: Challenges and Responses
http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers38/paper3787.html

2009
The New Great Game
http://transcurrents.com/tc/2009/10/

2007
Economist, April 2007

http://www.sangam.org/2007/03/Oil_Exploration.php?uid=2320

Детский труд на угольных шахтах Индии

Британский фотограф Марк Манье посетил угольные шахты в северо-восточном индийском штате Мегхалая (в индийском «отростке» между Бангладеш, Бутаном, Китаем и Мьянмой) и с ужасом увидел, как в них работают 8-12-летние дети, а также подростки. В день каждый из них получает до 3-5 долларов.

Шахты, в которых побывал фотограф, находятся около города Ладримбай в угольном бассейне Джайнтия. Человеческий труд здесь настолько дешев, что владельцам шахт нет смысла приобретать новую технику. Официально, конечно, в Индии приняты нормы безопасности труда и детский труд на таких предприятиях запрещен. Однако бизнесмены легко обходят законодательство. Из почти 8000 человек, работающих на шахтах в Джайнтия, около 2000 – это подростки и дети.

В принципе, каждый из них может заменить взрослого мужчину на подсобных работах, а в ряде случаев – например, при работе в узких штреках на глубине в 100-150 метров, где сложно развернуться и не хватает кислорода, даже нескольких. Хозяева шахт при этом платят им в два раза меньше, чем взрослым – по 3-5 долларов за день каторжного труда.

Тем не менее, даже 3-5 долларов в день здесь – это огромные деньги. Многие школьники учатся лишь половину года в школах, остальное время они вкалывают на угольных шахтах. Конкуренцию им составляют также и трудовые мигранты из Непала и Мьянмы, но пока индийские дети и подростки ее выигрывают.

Такая ситуация типична для стран Третьего мира, стоимость человеческого труда в которых близка к нулю, а вопросы экологии или охраны труда никакого не интересуют. Блог Толкователя уже рассказывал о крупнейшей в мире разделочной электросвалке в китайском Гуачжу, крупнейшей в мире свалке-переработке старых кораблей в Читтагонге в Бангладеш и жизни на свалке Агбогблоши в африканской Гане, куда страны «золотого миллиарда» ежегодно вывозят около 10% образующегося у них электромусора. Там также работают дети и подростки.
http://ttolk.ru/?p=5134

MEA-1999: Южная Азия

Источник: Мillennium energy atlas, 1999

Читать далее